Dear Customers
It is with regret that effective from 3rd July 2017 will no longer be accepting new orders.
Whilst we have enjoyed offering this individual service it is unfortunately not something we are able to provide going forwards.
All existing orders will be honoured – if you have recently purchased a test and have yet to return your sample please do so by 31 August 2017 so we can process your results.
Unfortunately we cannot guarantee that samples received after 31 August 2017 will be processed.
For those customers who have already received their results these will be available to you via our website until 31 August 2018, after which they will no longer be available.
After 31 August 2018 will not retain any samples or data relating to this service.
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Thank you for your custom.

Y Chromosome

The Y Chromosome

The Y Chromosome is one of two allosomes - sex-defining chromosomes. The two allosomes form one of the twenty-three chromosome pairs in every cell in the human body. Typically, women have two X chromosomes - one from their mother and one from their father. Men, however, have an X chromosome - inherited from their mother - and a Y chromosome - which always comes from their father.

The Y Chromosome spans around fifty-nine million base-pairs and represents almost 2% of the total DNA in a human cell. It is estimated that the Y Chromosome contains around fifty to sixty genes that provide information for making proteins. As only males carry the Y Chromosome, these genes tend to be concerned with male sex determination and development.

People sharing a Y Chromosome subtype share a similar amount of DNA as they would with their third or fourth cousin.

Why the Y?

The Y Chromosome is the single largest piece of DNA inherited as a block, and always coming from the father, it is a very useful tool in uncovering male ancestors. It remains largely unchanged as it passes from father to son, as it does not have a matching chromosome to recombine with.

The Y Chromosome is very interesting, because such a big block is inherited together, there is about one new genetic variant per generation or two. This means that complete Y Chromosome sequences should, in theory, allow us to reconstruct a family tree of all men on earth, accurate to a couple of generations. In reality, it is not simple to read all the letters of the Y chromosome; however a very refined tree can be built. As we improve resolution, the potential for improved interpretation increases too.

Your Y Chromosome

If you are a male, your Y Chromosome came from your father, which in turn came from his father, and so on, and so forth. You will share this Y Chromosome with any paternal blood uncles and will pass it onto your male children.

For a female to trace her fatherline, the best approach is to test a brother - as he shares both the motherline and fatherline. The next best volunteer would be your father himself, or paternal uncle, but this would give their motherline - your paternal grandmother’s mitochondrial DNA.